Biddle D, Hawthorne G, Forbes D, Coman G. Problem gambling in Australian PTSD treatment-seeking veterans. J Trauma Stress. 2005 Dec;18(6):759-67.
This study explored gambling among Australian veterans entering posttraumatic stress treatment programs (n = 153). Twenty-eight percent reached the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) criteria for probable problem gambling, as did 17% on the DSM-IV gambling scale (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
Almost all problem gamblers reported gambling to escape problems in other areas of their lives. The strongest independent predictor of problem gambling was gambling weekly or more often on electronic gaming machines. There was no significant relationship between problem gambling, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, or alcohol use. The study identified an entrenched gambling culture among PTSD treatment-seeking veterans, finding these veterans indulge in many different forms of gambling and that these forms are mediated by situational factors that provide both casual and formal gambling opportunities.