Graham J. McDougall Jr, Ph.D.
Well-being is a complex construct associated with variables such as depression, thriving, and quality of life that is known to influence outcomes across a wide range of studies. We present a reanalysis of this data identifying the influence of well-being on outcomes associated with memory function.
The Senior WISE study was 265 individuals who were 65 or over with no sensory loss or cognitive impairment. All participants completed mental status, multimodal memory function, functional status, memory self-efficacy, trait anxiety, depression, and metamemory. To explore the construct of well-being in this sample, we formed a composite variable using a factor analytic regression approach with the CESD, STAXI, self-rated mental health, and Role Limitations subscale of the SF36 (all bivariate in this sample and include scores in opposite directions) for pre intervention and post intervention time points. To identify change over time, pre scores were regressed on post well-being scores and conducted a mediation/moderation analysis on the 26-month follow up memory scores.
Analyses indicated that changes in well-being at post intervention significantly moderated but did not mediate memory scores at follow up on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test [Model F(196, 3) = 87.8; R2 = .52; pinteraction= .04). Directionality was intuitive in that improvement in well-being by post intervention led to greater HVLT scores at long term follow up.
This new knowledge provides insight into the role of well-being for memory training outcomes. Implications for cognitive training research will be evaluated.