Alcohol–induced brain damage Alcohol can damage the brain in many ways. The brain is vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol itself and can be affected by alcohol-related damage to other organs, including the liver, pancreas, and heart.
The effects of alcohol may be more severe or more readily observed in women than in men. Women achieve higher concentrations of alcohol in the blood and become more impaired than men after drinking equivalent amounts of alcohol. It is becoming increasingly important and valuable to compare the patterns, predictors, and consequences of women’s and […]
The U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) found that in 2003 approximately 1.4 million drivers were arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics, an arrest rate of 1 for every 135 licensed drivers in the United States.
Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8000 years. In Western society, beer and wine were a main staple of daily life until the 19th century. These relatively dilute alcoholic beverages were preferred over water, which was known to be […]
Alcohol use affects all three parts of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, a system of endocrine glands and hormones involved in male reproduction. Alcohol use is associated with low testosterone and altered levels of additional reproductive hormones. Of the three components of the HPG axis, the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland have solely regulatory functions, which […]
Alcohol and sexual performance Moderate use of alcohol can enhance sexual activity because it relaxes and lowers inhibitions. But excessive use can impair sexual functioning and make risky sex more likely. Heavy drinking dulls sensation and makes it more difficult for men to have an erection and women to reach orgasm. Women may be less […]
Over the past several decades, there have been significant advances in medical and scientific technologies that allow for the improved examination of the biological processes underlying specific behaviors. Advances in neuroimaging and molecular biology allow for studies that a decade or two previously were scarcely imaginable. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), via assessment […]
Pathological gambling is conceptualized as an addictive disorder on the grounds that it exhibits many phenomenological similarities to substance-abuse disorders. Higher rates of alcoholism and other substance use have been reported among gamblers than in the general population. Rates of lifetime substance use among pathological gamblers from the community and from treatment settings range from […]
In 1972 Dr. Robert Custer, a psychiatrist working at a Veterans’ Administration Hospital in Ohio, first proposed a medical syndrome associated with gambling, which he termed “compulsive gambling.” His efforts brought the problems associated with gambling into the health care arena. Dr. Robert Custer has identified three phases to pathological gambling:
Within the last few years, there has been a substantial increase in the amount of gambling opportunities offered on the Internet. Many concerns have been raised about the activity, including the potential for excessive gambling, and the lack of safeguards for vulnerable populations such as adolescents and problem gamblers. The global nature of the Internet, […]